E-government and e-commerce

Publications on e-government and e-commerce

Design and Development

Publications on e-government and e-commerce design and development

A Heuristics-Based Approach to Reverse Engineering of Electronic Services

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Akrivi Katifori
Information and Software Technology, Volume 51, Issue 2 (February 2009), Pages 325-336

Abstract
Since the beginning of the electronic era, public administrations and enterprises have been developing services, through which citizens, businesses and customers can conduct their transactions with the offering entity. Each electronic service contains a substantial amount of knowledge in the form help texts, rules of use or legislation excerpts, examples, validation checks etc. This knowledge has been extracted from domain experts when the services were developed, especially in the phases of analysis and design and was subsequently translated into software. In the latter format though, knowledge cannot be readily used in organizational processes, such as knowledge sharing and development of new services. In this paper, we present an approach for reverse engineering electronic services, in order to create knowledge items of high levels of abstraction, which can be used in knowledge sharing environments as well as in service development platforms. The proposed approach has been implemented and configured to generate artifacts for the SmartGov service development platform. Finally, an evaluation of the proposed approach is presented to assess its efficiency regarding various aspects of the reverse engineering process.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon eservice-reveng-rep.pdf1.29 MB
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An Object-Oriented Approach for Designing Administrative e-Forms and Transactional e-Services

D. Gouscos, S. Rouvas, C. Vassilakis and P. Georgiadis
Proceedings of the OOIS 2002 conference, pp. 19-30.

Abstract
Although electronic transaction services are considered to be a necessity for e-government, it has not been possible insofar to unleash their full potential. E-forms are central to the development of e-government, being a basic means for implementing the majority of the public services considered as required for local and central public administration authorities. In this paper, we present an object-oriented model for e-form-based administrative services, which spans the e-service lifecycle, including development, deployment and use by enterprises and citizens, data collection and communication with legacy information systems. The proposed approach encompasses semantic, structural and active aspects of e-forms, providing thus an inclusive framework for modelling electronic services.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon oo-approach-for-designing-eforms.pdf262.54 KB
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An XML model for electronic services

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Constantin Halatsis and Tomas Pariente Lobo
Electronic Government vol. 2 no 1, 2005.

Abstract:
With the need for electronic services to be developed and deployed more and more rapidly, it is imperative that concrete models of electronic services are developed, to facilitate systematic work of electronic service stakeholders, concrete semantics and coherent representations across services developed within an organisation. Using the XML language to develop such a model, offers a number of additional advantages, such as rich semantics, facilitation of data interchange, extensibility, high abstraction levels and possibility for mechanical processing. In this paper we present the design aspects of an XML model for electronic services, which has been used for building a repository of interlinked elements representing e-services. A web-based interface for the management of this repository and a tool for automatically compiling e-service descriptions into executable images have been developed alongside. The model has been evaluated by a mixture of electronic service stakeholders, and the results of this evaluation are also presented.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon xml-model.pdf242.92 KB
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Exploiting Form Semantics and Validation Checks to Improve e-Form Layout

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Stathis Rouvas and Panagiotis Georgiadis
International Journal of Web Engineering and Technology, 2005.

Abstract:
On their route to the electronic era, organisations, release on the web more and more complex form-based services, which require users to enter numerous data items interrelated by business rules. In such a context, it is crucial to provide optimal form layouts, in order to present the service users with interfaces that facilitate their work. This paper presents an integrated environment, which exploits data item interrelations manifested by the business rules (or validation checks) to optimise the layout of the web forms comprising a complex service. The approach is validated through its application on a tax return form e-service.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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Improving e-form layout through analysis of form semantics and validation checks

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Stathis Rouvas, Panagiotis Georgiadis
Proceedings of the CAiSE 2003 Forum, pp. 149-152.

Abstract:
Transaction services offered by public authorities vary from simple forms with few fields to multi-form compound documents with hundreds of input areas. In the latter case, field placement within forms is of particular importance for facilitating the filling and error correction processes. In this paper we present an approach to improving the form layout by exploiting validation checks that are usually associated with electronic forms, as well as semantic information that may be attached to form fields by designers.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon improving-eform-layout.pdf112.75 KB
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Ontology for e-Government public services

Ontology for e-Government public services
Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras

Encyclopedia of E-Commerce, E-Government and Mobile Commerce, 2006

Abstract:
In this work, the usage of ontologies for meeting requirements related to e-service composition, e-service cataloguing, change management and administrative responsibility is examined. An ontology for e-government services is presented, covering various aspects of services, including administrative responsibility, meta-data, involved documents and legislation. Both the development and usage phase of the ontology are covered and directions for further exploitation of the potential offered by the ontological representation are given.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon ontology-for-egov-public-services.pdf253.68 KB
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Reverse-engineering electronic services

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Akrivi Katifori
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Software and Data Technologies (ICSOFT 2006)

Abstract
Although electronic transaction services are considered to be a necessity for e-government, it has not been possible insofar to unleash their full potential. E-forms are central to the development of e-government, being a basic means for implementing the majority of the public services considered as required for local and central public administration authorities. In this paper, we present an object-oriented model for e-form-based administrative services, which spans the e-service lifecycle, including development, deployment and use by enterprises and citizens, data collection and communication with legacy information systems. The proposed approach encompasses semantic, structural and active aspects of e-forms, providing thus an inclusive framework for modelling electronic services.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon reveng-6page-final.pdf120.18 KB
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Frameworks, methodologies and models

Publications e-government and e-commerce frameworks, methodologies and models

A Framework for Managing the Lifecycle of Transactional e-Government Services

C. Vassilakis, G. Laskaridis, G. Lepouras, S. Rouvas, P. Georgiadis
Telematics and Informatics, vol. 20/4, pp 315-329, 2003, Elsevier Science Publications Ltd.

Abstract:
Filling and submission of electronic forms is a key issue for e-government, since most electronic services offered in this context include some variant of electronic forms. Insofar, IT experts are placed in the centre of electronic forms services lifecycles, undertaking the analysis, design, implementation and maintenance phases. This practice, however, implies various impediments, such as the need for multitudinous teams with diverse skills. In this paper we present experiences from developing and maintaining a set of electronic services for the Greek Ministry of Finance, and propose an approach to handling electronic services' lifecycle that balances responsibilities between domain experts and IT professionals. This approach enables a more holistic management of the electronic service lifecycle, by employing modelling and representation in high levels of abstraction and incorporating tools for automatically generating operative service instances from these high-level descriptions.

Note:This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

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A Software Architecture for Provision of Context-Aware Web-based m-Commerce Applications

Benou Poulcheria and Vassilakis Costas
Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (CIT 2011), 31 August - 2 September 2011 Paphos, Cyprus
Abstract

Mobile commerce is gaining significant importance in the recent years as an alternative option of e-commerce for the moving user. The mobile applications through which mcommerce takes place operate in highly dynamic environments with diverse characteristics and under varying conditions. The characteristics and conditions of these environments .called context. should be exploited in order to provide adaptive services; services that offer a suitable user experience and deliver innovative and enhanced capabilities that will facilitate user interaction, attract new customers and maintain existing ones. The goal of adaptivity is realized through the adaptation of user interface, functionality and content of applications using the context information. Therefore, context-awareness constitutes an essential aspect . almost a requirement . of mobile services. In order to realize context-aware services, there is a necessity to capture the context information from its sources, process and distribute it to the software components that will use it. In this paper, we propose a software architecture for context information management suitable for m-commerce applications. We describe the functionality and characteristics of its components, as well as the interaction among these different components.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon benou-SoftwareArchitecture.pdf196.21 KB
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A context management architecture for m-commerce applications

Poulcheria Benou, Costas Vassilakis
Central European Journal of Computer Science, June 2012, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 87–117, Versita, co-published with Springer Verlag.
Abstract

Mobile commerce applications operate in highly dynamic environments with diverse characteristics and interesting challenges. The characteristics and conditions of these environments –called context–, can be exploited to provide adaptive mobile services, in terms of user interface, functionality and content, in order to offer more effective m-commerce. Today, building adaptive mobile services is a complex and time-consuming task due to the lack of standardized methods, tools and architectures for the identification, representation and management of the context. Addressing some of these issues, recent works have provided formal extensions for various stages of the m-commerce application lifecycle, such as extended UML class diagrams for building design models and have used context parameters in order to offer adaptive applications. Using these works as the basis, in this paper we propose a context management architecture, which accommodates the requirements that have been identified for m-commerce applications. The proposed architecture is evaluated in terms of completeness, complexity, performance and utility, and compared against other approaches proposed in the literature regarding its suitability for supporting context-aware m-commerce applications.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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Component Reuse in Electronic Services Development

C. Vassilakis, G. Lepouras
Journal of Computational Methods in Science and Engineering, Volume 6, Supplement 2 / 2006, pp. 229 - 241

Abstract:
In the context of electronic government, e-services are a valuable instrument for offering high quality services to enterprises and individual citizens alike. While developing an e-service, it is usually possible to reuse elements that have already crafted for other e-services, such as personal detail forms or widgets for collecting social security numbers, decreasing thus both development effort and the time for deployment. A more generic framework for supporting reusability in development of e-services includes the identification of reusable objects, the creation and population of a repository containing such components, and the empowerment of developers with tools allowing for location, retrieval and adaptation of components for suiting their specific tasks. In this paper, we conduct an analysis to recognise e-service component that offer reusability opportunities and we present facilities and methods to enable e-service developers to exploit these opportunities while developing electronic services.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon jcmse.pdf325.86 KB
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Context Management for m-Commerce Applications: Determinants, Methodology and the Role of Marketing

Poulcheria Benou, Costas Vassilakis, Adam Vrechopoulos
Information Technology and Management, vol. 13, pp. 91–111, 2012, Springer-Verlag.
Abstract

Studying consumer behaviour and usage of environmental determinants in the mobile services domain contributes to the identification of context information which is critical for the effective operation of mobile commerce applications. Exploiting this information towards providing enhanced and innovative mobile services offers a competitive advantage within the highly demanding domain of m-commerce applications. However, in order to effectively exploit such context information, there is a need to design the necessary methods, software tools and information systems that will be employed for collecting, processing and disseminating this information. In this paper we develop a theoretical framework which defines the context information necessary for m-commerce applications, taking into account relevant marketing dimensions as well as privacy protection perspectives. Then, this framework is operationalized through the design of an appropriate software architecture which enables the standardization and management of context information.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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Domain Expert User Development: The SmartGov Approach

George Lepouras, Costas Vassilakis, Constantin Halatsis, Panagiotis Georgiadis
Communications of the ACM, Volume 50 , Issue 9

Abstract:
End-user development (EUD) aims to empower end-users with the necessary tools to implement their own software. In this sense domain expert user development can be viewed as a special case of EUD. Domain experts can be considered to be a special case of end-users who possess the necessary knowledge of how the software should operate, what tasks it has to carry out, which business rules need to be enforced, validation checks to perform, etc. It has to be noted that in some cases domain experts will not use the produced software themselves, this software however will indirectly support their work, e.g. software developed by tax officers (domain experts) to be used by tax payers (actual end-users) simplifies the subsequent work of tax officers through minimization of errors, population of electronic data repositories etc.

Using a user-centred software engineering paradigm domain expert users will work along with software developers to create specifications for the software to be implemented by the latter group. This process is usually iterative. Domain experts will be questioned by developers, developers will design a first prototype, the domain experts will most probably ask for changes, developers will come back with an altered prototype, etc. Since both user groups are usually involved in other assignments as well, this process can be time-consuming. Impedance mismatch problems, i.e. problems in the communication between the domain experts and the IT staff due to different backgrounds, perspectives and terminology result into additional delays within this phase. An alternative to this would be to help domain experts to create the software with a minimum or no involvement of IT personnel. This is the approach adopted in the SmartGov project . In the framework of SmartGov a knowledge-based platform was developed that assists public sector employees with suitable domain expertise to generate online transaction services by simplifying their development, maintenance and integration with installed IT systems.

Article available through the ACM Author-izer service:

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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E-forms services for the Public Sector: Shifting Development Effort from Programmers to Domain Experts

Stelios Gorilas, Kostas Vassilakis, Tomas Pariente Lobo, Efthimios Tabouris
Proceedings of e-Challenges 2003.

Abstract
E-forms have a central role in a significant number of e-government services. This paper presents a knowledge-based technical platform aiming to assist public sector employees to generate online transaction services by simplifying their development, maintenance and integration with installed IT systems. At the heart of this platform lies the knowledge and transaction services repository. This repository consists of a number of XML document types that incorporate all necessary details for creating and managing online transaction services. The main underlying idea is to provide a platform with intuitive interfaces that can be used directly by domain experts thus minimising the need for personnel with IT skills. This platform is currently under development within the IST SmartGov project.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon e-challenges.pdf137.04 KB
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Mobile and Context-Aware e-Commerce: Issues, Challenges and Research Directions

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Spiros Skiadopoulos
Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, Special Issue Editorial Preface

Abstract:
Electronic commerce, nowadays, is trying to extend its target audience and elevate the quality of services offered to end-users. Two important directions towards meeting these goals are the embracement of mobile users, whose number grows following the advent of communication technologies, and the inclusion of context-aware features in the delivered services to improve the efficiency of the dialogues between users and systems. The context taken into account may involve characteristics regarding the human user, the geographical location and the time of access, the devices employed to access the service, the network through which the user communicates with the system, the nature of the transaction carried out and so forth. It is clear that the development and successful operation of mobile and context-aware e-commerce introduce new challenges. In order to tackle such challenges, new methodologies, tools, architectures and platforms should be made available to assist analysts, designers, developers and operators in handling the various phases of the Mobile and Context-Aware E-Commerce Services (MCACS) lifecycle.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon editorial-jeco-si.pdf105.39 KB
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Reusability In Governmental Electronic Services

George Lepouras, Costas Vassilakis
Encyclopedia of Digital Government, Idea Group Reference, 2006.

Abstract:
Reusability is the degree to which a software component or other work can be used in more than one programs or software systems. e-Government is a prosperous area for the application of reusability, since the services offered to citizens from the same administration, or even different administrations, have common portions that can be developed only once and reused wherever appropriate. In this paper we present the design and implementation of an electronic service development environment which offers the potential to reuse components that have already been implemented, for the realization of new services.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon ReusabilityInGovernmentEServices.pdf207.17 KB
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Reusability in Electronic Services Development

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras
proceedings of the CSITeA 04 conference, 2004.

Abstract:
Electronic government employs electronic services to facilitate interaction with citizens and enterprises and deliver a rich and high quality spectrum of services. Development of electronic services can be greatly assisted, both in terms of development cost and roll-out time, by exploiting the reusability inherent in them. Reusability may be promoted by identifying reusable objects in the context of electronic service development, building and populating a repository with such components and providing the means for developers to locate, extract and adapt them to suit the task at hand. In this paper we analyse electronic services to recognise reusable components and present means and techniques that empower electronic service developers to build electronic services through reusable components.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon reusability-eservice-development.pdf253.61 KB
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The Conceptual Model of Context for Mobile Commerce Applications

Benou Poulcheria and Vassilakis Costas
Electronic Commerce Research, Springer-Verlag, Volume 10, Number 2 / June 2010, 139-165
Abstract

Mobile commerce applications adhering to anytime and anywhere paradigm, required to be flexible. They should be able to adapt their interface, services and content towards a certain context. Several proposals for definition of context have been already proposed originating from various areas related to mobile commerce. However, an integrated, formal and methodological approach for the determination and representation of context, adjusted to special characteristics of mobile commerce applications, has not been insofar presented. This is the challenge we address in this paper, through a conceptual model that includes: i) a clear and formal definition of context, ii) the depiction of its specific characteristics as metadata, iii) a methodology for its determination and iv) the presentation of an extension of class diagrams of UML for its representation, all of them tailored to the special nature of mobile commerce applications.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon ctx-model-tr.pdf297.08 KB
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The Lifecycle Of Transactional Services

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras
Encyclopedia of Digital Government, Idea Group Reference, 2006.

Abstract:
Transactional services are an indispensible part of e-government, since provision of services to citizens and enterprises,as well as the interaction between the government and citizens-enterprises are modelled mainly through such services. Latest quantifications, however, show that the development of such services lags behind as compared both to the expectations of citizens-enterprises and to the efforts made by governments. This can be attributed, amongst other reasons, to the "traditional" approach to electronic service development, which treats each electronic service as an isolated software project. In this paper, we propose an e-service development platform, which covers the whole lifecycle of transactional services and facilitates the analysis, development, deployment and maintenance of these services.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon lifecycle-transactional-services.pdf191.12 KB
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Transactional e-Government Services: an Integrated Approach

C. Vassilakis, G. Laskaridis, G. Lepouras, S. Rouvas and P. Georgiadis
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Electronic Government-EGOV 2002, pp. 276-279

Abstract:
Although form-based transactional services are fundamental to electronic government activities, their widespread does neither meet the citizen's expectations, nor the potential offered by state-of-the-art technologies. Besides any bureaucratic impediments, the primary reason for this is that traditional software engineering approaches cannot satisfactorily handle all the aspects of electronic services lifecycle. In this paper we present experiences from developing and maintaining a set of electronic services for the Greek Ministry of Finance, and propose a new approach for handling electronic service projects. The proposed approach has been successfully employed for developing extensions to the existing services, as well as some new ones.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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Issues, factors and barriers

Publications on issues, factors and barriers surrounding e-government and e-commerce

An Approach for re-engineering the Taxation Process to Support Participatory Decisions on Tax Budget Allocation

Manolis Kalikakis, Dimitris Gouscos, Costas Vasillakis, Panagiotis Georgiadis
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Methodologies, Technologies and Tools enabling e-Government

Abstract:
The tax collection process has been described as a bureaucratic one, that confines citizen involvement to the role of passive fulfillment of administrative and financial obligations. Active citizen participation, in the form of some political say on the allocation of collected taxes which could potentially improve and further legitimize tax collection, is not a part of the traditional taxation model. In this paper we describe a new taxation model which, in the spirit of participatory budgeting approaches, supports active citizens’ participation on decision making regarding tax funds allocation.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon Metteg07-PBTaxation.pdf221.54 KB
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Barriers To Electronic Service Development

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, John Fraser, Simon Haston, Panagiotis Georgiadis
e-Service Journal, Indianna University Press, 2005

Abstract:
E-government initiatives have been proven to deliver significant benefits, both for suppliers of electronic services (public authorities and organisations) and for the public, to whom services are addressed. However, the pace with which electronic services are made available and adopted is lower than planned or expected; governments tend to be slow in releasing new services, and citizens often prefer to conduct business with the government through paper forms and physical presence, rather than using online methods. This indicates that certain barriers exist that hinder the transition to electronic services. In this paper, we present the results of a survey among electronic service stakeholder groups, to identify the most important barriers to electronic service development. Documentation of barriers is considered important, since administrations may take certain measures to overcome them. Hints on how specific barriers may be overcome are also given in this paper.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
Year: 

Towards a P2P world: peered taxation

M. Kalikakis, D. Gouscos, K. Vassilakis, P. Georgiadis
Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop "E-taxation: State & Perspectives", 2007

Abstract:
This paper presents the current model for taxation and distribution of the taxes to government activities, and an alternative model is presented, according to which tax-payers can determine, to some extent, the way that the taxes they pay will be spent. The goal of this proposal is to increase citizen involvement and system transparency. The model proposal comes complete with an architecture that supports the realization of the proposed scheme.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon e-Taxation.pdf57.23 KB
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e-Citizens and e-Consumers: Is There a Difference?

G. Laskaridis, C. Vassilakis, G. Lepouras, S. Rouvas
Proceedings of the PCHCI 2001 Workshop: "Transforming Web Surfers to E-Shoppers", Patras, Greece, December 2001, pp. 47-50.

Abstract
Both the business sector and the government are nowadays embracing Internet technologies in order to provide high quality on-line services to their "target groups". In both cases, service providers are trying to transform web surfers, casually visiting their web sites to seek information, to users of their electronic services, i.e. e-consumers and. e-citizens. In this paper, we address the similarities and the differences between the business and the government, when they act as service providers, with respect to the factors for successful service and the issues that must be addressed.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon ecitizens-vs-econsumers.pdf75.48 KB
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Platforms, systems and architectures

Publications on e-government and e-commerce systems and architectures

A Blackboard-oriented Architecture for e-Government service composition

Costas Vassilakis, Anya Sotiropoulou, Dimitrios Theotokis, Dimitris Gouscos
Proceedings of the IRMA 2005 conference.

Abstract:
A requirement for electronic government initiatives to succeed is the ability to offer a citizen-centric view of the government model. The most widely adopted paradigm supporting this task is the life event model, which combines basic services offered from multiple public authorities into a single, high-level service that corresponds to an event in a citizen's life. This composition is not always straightforward though, because the constituent services are generally developed in an independent fashion, using incompatible input and output formats; moreover the task of synchronising the documents required and produced by the services is tedious to implement and costly to maintain, since changes to requirements and legislation necessitate continuous updates to this scheme. In this paper, we present a blackboard architecture that can be used to deliver life-event oriented services to the citizens. The blackboard proposed for this architecture is an active one, undertaking the tasks of conversions, where appropriate. The blackboard couples a data flow approach with event-condition-action rules to enable dynamic formulation of life-event services, decentralising their development and maintenance.

Note:This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

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PDF icon blackboard-oriented-arch-for-e-gov.pdf429.63 KB
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A Knowledge-Based Approach for Developing Multi-Channel e-Government Services

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Costantin Halatsis
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Elsevier publications, Volume 6 , Issue 1 (January, 2007).

Abstract:
Having realised the benefits resulting from delivering on-line public services in the context of electronic government, administrations strive to extend the spectrum of services offered to citizens and enterprises, as well as to engage multiple communication channels in service delivery, in order to increase the target audience and, consequently, the service effectiveness. Insofar, however, only the web channel has been sufficiently used for service delivery, whereas other channels have not been adequately exploited. One of the main reasons of this lag is the cost incurred for the development and maintenance of multiple versions of an electronic service, each version targeted to a different platform. In this paper, we present an approach and the associated tools for developing and maintaining electronic services that allows the automated production of different versions of the electronic service, each targeted to a specific platform.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon multichannel-final.pdf492.71 KB
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A Semantics-Based Consultations Workbench

Costas Vassilakis, Dimitris Gouscos, Panagiotis Georgiadis
Proceedings of the 2005 ITI 3rd International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (IEEE).

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eConsultations constitute an effective means to inclusive and informed participation of citizens and society in policy, decision and law formulation processes, and an answer to democratic deficit issues. eConsultation platforms need to support all stages of consultation processes including agenda setting and topics raising, legislation proposal publicity, notification of developments, proposal debate and commentary, collection, analysis and synthesis of views. In this paper we present the design of an open platform assisting policy makers and the civil society in the set-up, enactment, management and federation of inclusive and informed digital consultations. The proposed platform employs semantic techniques, such as semantics, content annotation and summarization to support the consultation processes and provide targeted and digested information to participants, and facilitates tailoring of eConsultation procedures by offering basic eConsultation activities as building blocks, which can be combined according to contextual needs. The platform also enables distinct eConsultation processes to be federated, allowing the exchange of information, which may be subject to different semantic annotations and classifications, according to the rules of each eConsultation process.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon eConWork.pdf158.39 KB
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Adaptive Virtual Reality Shopping Malls

George Lepouras, Costas Vassilakis
Encyclopedia of E-Commerce, E-Government and Mobile Commerce, 2006.

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Firms and organizations are increasingly exploiting electronic channels to reach their customers and create new business opportunities. To this end, electronic shops have been developed, either offering products from a single firm or encompassing multiple individual electronic stores, comprising thus electronic shopping malls. Two main concerns for e-commerce are personalization and enhancement of user experience. Personalization addresses the ability to offer content tailored to the preferences of each user or user group. Preferences may be explicitly declared by the user, or derived by the system through inspecting user interaction; if the system dynamically reacts to changes of visitor behavior, it is termed as adaptive. Enhancement of user experience is another major issue in e-commerce, given that 2D-images and texts on the screen are not sufficient to provide information on products aspects such as physical dimensions, textures and manipulation feedback. Multimedia presentations can also be used as a means for .information acceleration. for promoting "really new" products. This article aims to specify a system that exploits capabilities offered by adaptation and VR technologies to offer e-shoppers personalized and enhanced experiences, while addressing challenges related to the cost, complexity and effort of building and maintaining such a system.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon adapt-vr-mall.pdf196.48 KB
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Exploiting Context in Mobile Applications

Benou Poulcheria, Vassilakis Costas
Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Second Edition, IGI Global, 2009
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In the mobile and pervasive computing environment, software engineering should not treat diversity and mobility as problems to overcome, but seek methods of which it could take advantage instead. In these environments, the selection of purpose-oriented and timely information, tailored to user preferences and media characteristics will ensure an optimised information delivery. To this end, the context .the information that surrounds the human-computer interaction. plays a key role and is rapidly changing in mobile settings, and the understanding of it is indispensable for the application designers in order to choose, capture and exploit it. In this work, we present an architecture facilitating the collection of context information and its exploitation for optimized information delivery, within mobile and pervasive computing environments.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
Year: 

Integrating e-Government Public Transactional Services in the Public Authority Workflow

Costas Vassilakis, George Lepouras, Stathis Rouvas, Panagiotis Georgiadis
Electronic Government, vol. 1, No 1, pp. 49-60, 2004.

Abstract:
Documents submitted by citizens through electronic services deployed in the context of e-Government must usually undergo processing by some organisational information system, in order to complete the citizens¢ requests and for the reply to be returned to the citizen. The integration, however, of the e-service delivery platform and the organisational information system is often hindered for a number of reasons, including security considerations, platform diversity or idiosyncrasies of legacy information systems. In this paper we present a generic method for providing seamless communication between the two platforms, enabling the full integration of documents submitted through electronic services into the organisational workflow, leveraging thus the quality of services offered to the citizens and facilitating e-service development and operation.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon integrating-eg.pdf140.13 KB
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SMARTGOV: A Governmental Knowledge-based Platform for Public Sector Online Services

E. Tambouris, G. Boukis, C. Vassilakis, G. Lepouras, S. Rouvas, R. Canadas, S. Heredia, J. C. Lopez Usero
Proceedings of the KMGov2002 Workshop, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 23-24, 2002, pp. 173-185.

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Public transaction services (such as e-forms), although perceived the future of e-government have not yet realised their full potential. E-forms have a significant role in e-government, as they are the basis for realising most of the twenty public services that all European Union member states have to provide to their citizens and businesses. The aim of this paper is to present a knowledge-based platform to assist public sector employees to generate online transaction services by simplifying their development, maintenance and integration with already installed IT systems.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon kmgov-article.pdf436.31 KB
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SmartGov: A Knowledge-based Platform for Transactional Electronic Services

P. Georgiadis, G. Lepouras, C. Vassilakis, G. Boukis, T. Tambouris, S. Gorilas, E. Davenport, A. Macintosh, J. Fraser and D. Lochhead
Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Electronic Government-EGOV 2002, pp. 362-369.

Abstract:
Public transaction services (such as e-forms) although perceived the future of e-government have not yet realised their full potential. E-forms have a significant role in e-government, as they are the basis for implementing most of the twenty public services that all member states have to provide to their citizens and businesses. The aim of the SmartGov project is to specify, develop, deploy and evaluate a knowledge-based platform to assist public sector employees to generate online transaction services by simplifying their development, maintenance and integration with already installed IT systems. This platform will be evaluated in two European countries (in one Ministry and one Local Authority). This paper outlines key issues in the development of the SmartGov system platform.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon smartgov-kb-for-transactional.pdf225.94 KB
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Tailorability in the context of E-government Information Systems: An approach

George Lepouras, Anya Sotiropoulou, Dimitrios Theotokis, Costas Vassilakis
Proceedings of the IRMA 2004 conference, 2004.

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The ever changing environment information systems model, and in particular e-government ones, intensifies the need for systems that are able to easily, efficiently and transparently adapt to changing environments. Accommodating unanticipated changes implies that systems must be able to adapt to changes occurring in and evolve in step with their changing environment. Adaptation is concerned with monitoring, analysing and understanding the patterns of the user's interaction with the system. Similarly, an information system is said to be evolutionary if it can be purposefully used in a dynamic environment. E-government information systems, in virtue of their nature and function, are driven by the need to adapt and evolve. This suggests that the design and implementation of such systems must provide the necessary infrastructure for evolution and adaptability. In other words, e-government information systems must abide to the Tailorable Information Systems paradigm. In this work we present a case study for the development of a Tailorable e-government information system.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon tailorability-for-egovernment.pdf60.78 KB
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Tailorable e-government information systems

George Lepouras, Anya Sotiropoulou, Dimitrios Theotokis, Costas Vassilakis
Encyclopedia of E-Commerce, E-Government and Mobile Commerce, 2006.

Abstract:
Real-world information, knowledge and procedures after which information systems are modeled are generally of dynamic nature and subject to changes, due to the emergence of new requirements or revisions to initial specifications. E-government information systems (eGIS) present a higher degree of volatility in their environment, since requirement changes may stem from multiple sources, including legislation changes, organizational reforms, end-user needs, interoperability and distribution concerns etc. To this end, the design and implementation of eGIS must adhere to paradigms and practices that facilitate the accommodation of changes to the eGIS as they occur in the real world. In this work, we present a role-based model for designing and implementing eGIS that can dynamically accomodate changes, providing the necessary facilities for modeling multiple aspects of the same real-world entities and delivering context-specific behaviour.

Note: This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.
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PDF icon tailorable-egov-information-systems.pdf144.32 KB
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The Architecture for Context Management of m-Commerce Applications

Benou Poulcheria, Vassilakis Costas
Technical report TR-SSDBL-11-001

Abstract:
This document describes the architectural design and the detailed module design of a context management system for m-commerce applications.

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PDF icon cma-tr_final.pdf273.82 KB
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